'One low-cost method of increasing growing space without building new greenhouses is to install a roll-out tray system. A roll-out system doubles growing space by placing one layer of plants on the floor and a second layer 20 to 30 inches above the floor on a rail system. During the day best reinforcing welded wire mesh , the trays are rolled outside the greenhouse onto a matching rail network. Both crops receive full sunlight. At night, they are rolled back into the greenhouse. This system can be adapted to both hoophouses and gutter-connected ranges. It does, however, require a level area adjacent to the greenhouse. The system works well in the busy spring season. It is good for hardening off bedding plants, perennials and herbs during the spring and for potted plant production during the fall. It has been used for growing cool season vegetables too, including arugula, lettuce, spinach and more. Some growers have also used the roll-out system as an intermediate step until funding is available to build a new greenhouse. The greenhouse can be built directly over the roll-out supports. It just takes planning to make sure that everything fits together. If designed properly, the trays can be moved from either the greenhouse or the roll-out area to the work area for planting or shipping operations. This requires a pipe transport rail system and transfer stations to change direction. Compressed air is used to raise or lower the tray to change direction. Although I have seen movable trays as large as 10 by 50 inches, the usual size is 4 to 6 inches wide by 8 to 16 inches long. This makes for easy moving. When placed on rails, labor is saved too, as a whole row of trays can be pushed in or out at one time by one person. A typical design is to install two rows of trays in a bay or hoophouse with an access aisle in the middle. These can be moved sideways on the rails to allow access to an individual tray. There are several variations in bench design. An aluminum extrusion frame with a galvanized expanded metal bottom is the most common material for weight and long life. The bottom needs to be supported on 24-inch frame to prevent sagging. There is little maintenance to these trays. Welded steel, although heavier, is another available option. Molded plastic trays or inserts are used when a watertight tray is needed. In the roller conveyor system, flat bottom trays that ride on trolley wheels or fixed casters attached to support rails are used. In a second system, the rollers are attached to each tray and ride on the smooth pipe rails. The support system is usually made of galvanized steel tubing. The rails are welded together to form a smooth surface. Support posts are placed in concrete piers or fastened to a concrete walkway for rigidity. The system has to be strong enough to carry the weight of the trays, as much as two tons/tray. Bracing is needed to keep the system rigid when the trays are being moved. A roll-out tray system can help harden off plants during the spring and grow cool-season vegetables. The endwall of the greenhouse needs to be modified by installing doors that open to allow the trays to pass through. These doors can be manual as they are opened only once or twice each day. Depending where your business is located, a roll-out tray systems can add valuable growing area at a time when it is at a premium.\n', 'Since March 2020, the trays are rolled outside the greenhouse onto a matching rail network. Both crops receive full sunlight. At night temporary bamboo fencing , climbing to $1,825. Prior to the pandemic, it traded in the $500 to $800 range. Whats going on? During the early months of the 2020 shutdowns, many steel mills shut off production in fear that we were headed into a deep recessionmaybe even a depression. But that drop-off in demand didnt last long for iron ore. Early in the pandemic, stuck at home Americans rushed to spruce up their abodes. Soon, steel-heavy products like grills and refrigerators were in high demand. That quick rebound caught steel mills off-guard. What happened, which is similar to lumber, demand during COVID-19 was stronger than first anticipated because of switches in consumption patterns. Instead of paying for experiences and vacations, they were buying a new lawn mower, buying a new car, or white goods like applianceswhich are steel intensive, Thorsten Schier, a metals expert at Fastmarkets, tells Fortune . As the U.S. begins to fully reopen, some pandemic-spurred trends, like lumber and steel intensive do-it-yourself home remodeling, are slowing down. That DIY pullback is, in part, helping to cause a correction in the lumber market: Since peaking at $1, they are rolled back into the greenhouse. This system can be adapted to both hoophouses and gutter-connected ranges. It does 8 ft temporary fence , unlike wood products , steel is less dependent on DIY or new home construction which is also cooling down a bit from its March peak this year . In fact, many industries that are steel heavy, like oil and gas, are seeing their steel demand soar right now as the economy reopens. Oil producers and refineries will only need more steel in the coming months as Americans return to air travel and their daily commutes. I dont think weve hit the peak for steel prices. Most people in the market see strength through the third quarter, and some dont see it getting better on the buying side until 2022 sometime, Schier says. It is just that supply is that tight. People are scrambling for material. Another factor: Consolidation. Two major acquisitions last year by steelmaking titan Cleveland-Cliffs AK Steel for $1.1 billion and U.S. steel mills from ArcelorMittal for $1.4 billion has essentially made the steel industry a duopoly. That firm grip by Cleveland-Cliffs and United States Steel Corporation on the market, Schier says, leaves them with little incentive to increase production. After all, creating more supply would only mean their prices would fall. The other wildcard at play are global supply chains issues. In particular, the chip shortage which is hampering new car production. Once the chip shortage is resolved, the automotive industry is expected to ramp-up. More cars rolling off production lines, means more steel demand. Fastmarkets Schier was blunt with his short-term steel assessment: There doesnt appear to be any sign that it is abating anytime soon.\n', 'By Andy Home 6 Min Read LONDON (Reuters) - Coppers red-hot rally rolls on with London Metal Exchange (LME) three-month metal hitting $8,437 per tonne on Tuesday, its highest level since May 2012. Exchange stocks are low and LME time-spreads are tightening. Coppers micro dynamics are reinforcing the macro reflation trade that is lifting prices across the commodities spectrum. Throw in a sprinkling of electric vehicle stardust and you can see why the likes of Goldman Sachs and Citi are doubling down on their bull calls for the copper market. Both banks have raised their 12-month price target to $10,000 per tonne, Goldman warning that copper may be heading for a period of scarcity pricing. Yet fund managers appear cautious with money manager positioning on both the London and CME contracts plateauing even as the price has surged to fresh highs. Investors appear to be worrying about the potential for a correction after the turbo-charged rally from the March 2020 low of $4,371. This contrast between short-term wariness and longer-term exuberance is also clear to see in the LME copper options landscape. Funds remain heavily long copper on both sides of the Atlantic but net positioning has flattened out since October, however expanded mesh roll companies ,671 contracts last week, according to the latest Commitments of Traders Report (COTR). That was up from the prior week but below last Octobers peak of 91,578 contracts and a good 30% off the levels seen in the 2017 bull surge. While outright bull bets have crept up to three-year highs, the impact has been offset by a slight uptick in outright short positions. The same loss of appetite is evident in the London market. Money managers flipped from short to long in the second quarter of 2020 and accumulated bullish positions through December. Since then however, positioning has fluctuated and at a current 38,635 contracts the collective long is below its mid-January peak of 43,994. The strong build in long positions in the LMEs other financial category - which captures insurance, reinsurance and pension companies - has also petered out. At 33,943 contracts the net long is now some way off its August 2020 high of 43,212 contracts. Fund buying may have been a driver of coppers remarkable COVID-19 recovery last year but the most recent leg of the rally seems to be running partly on empty, particularly with Chinese players absent over the Lunar New Year holidays. Or as LME broker Marex Spectron put it in a Monday client note, liquidity remains poor with gappy intraday moves the result. The combination of rising prices and falling liquidity is often a market warning sign that some sort of correction and consolidation phase is coming. Short-term anxiety is also clear to see in the LME copper options landscape. While options open interest in the fourth quarter of this year remains dominated by bull strategies, there is a much more balanced picture over the shorter term. Open interest across March, April and May is fairly evenly split between call options, which confer the right to buy copper, and put options, which confer the right to sell. Downside puts have been in growing demand as fears of a price correction rise. It is noticeable in the world of metals that more and more industrial clients are buying downside put option structures to protect themselves against a collapse in prices and particularly in copper and nickel, noted LME broker Kingdom Futures in its Monday client note. Market open interest on March, a big liquidity month for LME options, was finely balanced between 20,195 call contracts and 18,541 put contracts at the end of last week. Open interest in April is slanted towards the upside but puts outnumber calls in May. Its only in the fourth quarter that bullish exuberance reasserts itself. Market open interest for December options is heavily skewed to the upside with 16,157 lots of calls dwarfing 2,349 lots of puts as of Friday. The cluster of open interest on the $9,000 strike - 5,552 lots of call options - is already something of a market talking point but there are another 2,851 lots open on the $10,000 strike and even 400 on the $12,000 strike. Such options would have seemed outlandishly bullish even a couple of months ago. But with copper now trading above $8,000 per tonne and Wall Streets finest calling for it to hit $10,000 per tonne over a 12-month time horizon, they dont seem so far-fetched. The problem is that markets arent supposed to move in straight lines, unlike coppers steady one-way ascent from last years lows. Fund managers seem loathe to add more length at these elevated levels, while LME options open interest suggests both investors and industry are positioning themselves for a potential correction over the coming months. Be warned, however. If it does come, it could prove short-lived with many would-be investors still playing catch-up with the copper market. Based on client discussions we believe there are more discretionary investors on the sidelines than participating at this stage but equally, are universally primed to buy, according to Goldman Sachs. (Copper: Curtailed seasonal surplus set to reinforce path towards scarcity pricing in Q2, Jan. 27, 2021) Citi analysts agree. Discretionary investors have room to add, but have not been given too many opportunities given the (...) sharp rise in prices and lack of substantial pullbacks over the past year. (Super-cycle sunrise? Copper to $10k/t sooner rather than later, Feb. 16, 2021) Unlike fast-moving algorithmic black-box funds, discretionary investors take their time before committing to a market, particularly one which burnt many of them a decade ago. Ironically, they may now need a bit of that same copper market turbulence to join the action this time around. The opinions expressed here are those of the author, a columnist for Reuters. Editing by David Evans Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.\n'